2nd generation of computer examples

Third generation (1965-1974 AD) 4. Ultimately, they served as an update for using less power and space. 3. 5. Example of this generations include: UNIVAC, ENICA, EDVAC. More powerful, more reliable, and less expensive, which made them more commercial. It acted as a transmitter and resistor (ergo its name; ‘trans’, ‘istor'). See computer generations, IBM 1401 and Honeywell. Examples are the IBM 1401, IBM 7090 and 7094, UNIVAC 1107, PDP-1 and 8. Finally, in 1964, IBM released the 360 series, made up of computers that were characterized by running the same software in different combinations of speed, capacity and price. Techopedia explains Second Generation (Programming) Language (2GL) Assembly Languages originated in the 1940s, and are attributed to the efforts of the American naval officer Grace Hopper, with the introduction of the FLOW-MATIC language for the ENIAC computer. It had a storage capacity of 5 megabytes of data. They replaced the job of vacuum tubes through the 1950s and 1960s. It used a magnetic core memory with more than 60,000 decimal digits. COBOL. A transistor computer, now often called a second generation computer, is a computer which uses discrete transistors instead of vacuum tubes.The first generation of electronic computers used vacuum tubes, which generated large amounts of heat, were bulky and unreliable. They were programmed with high level languages which allowed new utilities in which they could be used. 3. These cores contained small rings of linked magnetic material in which data and instructions could be stored. Second Generation (Transistors) Year 1956 – 1963 Characteristics > Used transistors instead of vacuum tubes for circuitry, which enabled computers of this generation to become smaller, faster, cheaper and more energy-efficient > Used magnetic core instead of magnetic drums as … Second generations of computer (1955-1964 AD) 3. Computers began to decrease in size, and small magnetic rings were used to store information and instructions. Physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley, who knowing the properties of the silicon found in quartz stones, after years of research finally conceived the transistor. Much smaller size. A couple of years later, in 1962, Spacewar! First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Examples of second generation computers were: UNIVAC 1108 Its original components were very simple. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. Delphi The most important characteristicof fourth generation computers is undoubtedly their size, which was due to the use of microprocessor technology / VLSI. 6. Any appliance that has a digital clock, for instance, has a small embedded micro-controller that performs no other task than to display the clock. In this generation, assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL were used. The second generation of computers saw the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. This advance made computers faster, smaller, lighter, more reliable and with less need for ventilation, making them also commercially accessible and powerful. The main technology for Second Generation was transistors (1956-1963). They were built with transistor electronics. Second generation computers can be characterized largely by their use of transistors. The input for these computers were higher level languages like COBOL, FORTRAN etc. In order to create the first flight simulator, the U.S. Navy used second-generation computers. The main features of second generation are −, Reliable in comparison to first generation computers, Smaller size as compared to first generation computers, Generated less heat as compared to first generation computers, Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers. In addition, the use of high level languages allowed the improvement in program implementation and its use in airline reservation systems, air traffic control and general purpose simulations. Fifth generation (Developing process) Well, these generation computers use the high level of languages like Perl, Python, C, JAVA, etc. Second Generation Computers Sample The computing machines built in the 1950s and 1960s are considered the 2nd coevals computing machines. The IBM 7094 is the computer of the second generation. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors, memories and I/O units. In 1956, IBM sold its first magnetic disk system, the RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control). C. 5. Vacuum tubes generated too much heat, were very large, and proved to be unreliable. It used punched cards and a 4000 character magnetic core memory. They were a big improvement over the vacuum tube, despite still subjecting computers to damaging levels of heat. These computers make use of the transistors invented by Bell Telephone laboratories and they had many of the same components as the modern-day computer. FORTRAN. second generation computer (architecture) A computer built from transistors, designed between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s. Smaller in size as compared to the first generation computers. 1.1 GENERATION OF COMPUTERS The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. Uses of second generation computers . Ferrite core memory and magnetic drums replaced cathode ray tubes and delay-line storage for main memory. More laptops. In computers, they functioned as an electronic switch or bridge. Thanks to this, they had other advantageous features: 1. This video is about: 2nd Generation of Computer . The second generation of computers heralds the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. This made them far more compact than the first generation computers. In the First Generation, Computer and vacuum tube were the main components at that time as a technology for a computer. The period of second generation was from 1959-1965. The computers used batch processing and multiprogramming operating system. By 1960, IBM launched the IBM 1620 mainframe. The input of this system was based on punched cards and paper tape; however, the output was displayed on printouts. IBM developed the first high-level general-purpose programming language, FORTRAN. Computers of first generation used vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for Central Processing Unit.The first electronic computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator) was developed in 1947 at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. These computing machines make usage of the transistors invented by Bell Telephone research labs and they had many of the same constituents as the contemporary computing machine. 4. Computers developed between 1959-1965 the second generation computers. UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer . Examples: ENIAC – Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator. They used networks of magnetic cores instead of rotating drums for primary storage, containing small rings of linked magnetic material in which data and instructions could be stored. A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities – 1. Fifth Generation of Computers: Now we use the Fifth Generation of Computers which were started around 1982. The invention of transistor lead to start the second generation of computers. First generation (1945-1954 AD) 2. 8. This transistor-based equipment used a perforated paper ribbon which quickly changed to punched cards. Index registers and floating point arithmetic hardware became widespread. Computer Mouse and GUI make computers more enjoyable. Available for any type of person. 9. The period of second generation was from 1959-1965. 7. For programming purpose besides machine and assembly languages, high level languages were also used like FORTRAN, COBOL and BASIC etc. In this generation, transistors were used that were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. They took up less space and produced less heat than computers that operated with vacuum tubes. First Generation of mordern computer (1946 - 1954) The period of first generation was 1946 - 1954. Speed– Relatively fast as compared to first generation, thousand instruct… It proved to be a popular scientific computer reaching sales of approximately 2000 units. Five Generations of computer. The microprocessor chips are used in this generation of computers. Examples of third-generation Programming Languages : 1. It would take operators days or even weeks to set-up a new problem. The IBM 7090 was a transistorized version of the vacuum tube IBM 709 machine. In these computers, primary memorywas stored on the magnetic cores and magnetic tape and they used magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. They contained a semi-conductor material that could change its electrical state when pulsed. Other computers that used transistors include the IBM 7070, Philco Transac S-1000, and RCA 501. The second generation of computers did not represent an opening to the mass market; The developed models were not even conceived as household machinery, and it took a few years to really adapt to a market, so be specialized. It also implemented the commercial use of microprograms, and user-friendly instructions for their use to process many types of data, not just numerical (arithmetic). Transistors were widely used in computers from 1956 to 1963. On the other hand, computer programs that were conceived during the first generation were improved, since new programming languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN were developed. Magnetic Drums: Punched Cards: Paper Tape: Disadvantages . In this generation, transistors were used that were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. 2. The world saw transistor replaced the vacuum tubes in the second generation of computers. 2. The first computers used vacuum tubes and occupied a considerable space (up to 30m long). More powerful and reliab… The first computer to use transistors was the TX-0 and was introduced in 1956. In the second generation, the size of the computers began to decrease thanks to the creation of transistors to process information. Subsequently, in 1959, IBM continued its evolution and created the most successful machine in computing history (12,000 units sold): the IBM 1401 transistor-based mainframe. Some of the computers that were already built with transistors in this period were: Characteristics of the second generation of computers, History of the second generation of computers, Inventions of the second generation of computers, Inventors of the second generation of computers, Featured computers from the second generation. The 2nd generation Computers were m ore reliable ; Used less energy and were not heated. It was the last commercial, scientific mainframe computer, and the transistorized version of the earlier … BASIC. Second generation computers also used magnetic core networks instead of rotating drums for primary storage. 6. They generate a lot of heat; They consume of a lot of electricity ; They where very bulkey in size; They were expensive. However, acquisition costs remained high. The distinguishing feature of second generation computers (1956-1963) is that they used discrete transistors mounted on printed circuit cards. This generation marked a new era that was defined by the replacement of vacuum valves by transistors, which implied the creation of more reliable computers with less ventilation needs, making them commercially accessible and powerful. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. Some examples of third generation computers are the IBM System/360, IBM 1130, UNIVAC 1107, Apollo Flight Computer, Minuteman II Guidance Computer, UNIVAC … ALGOL. The computers built in the 1950s and 1960s are considered the 2nd generation computers. Vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors. Java. The Five Generations of Computers can be described as the overall development of computer technology respective to their size, power, PC memory, cost, and application. The third generation is the Mini-Computer Generation. In order to create the first flight simulator, the U.S. Navy used second-generation computers. As compared to the first generations of the computer the modern-day computers are faster, smarter, stronger and cheaper and can store a … Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. The first generation is the Vacuum Tube Generation. Size– Smaller than first generation Computers. Although first invented in 1947, transistors weren’t used significantly in computers until the end of the 1950s. 200 transistors could be accommodated in the same amount of space as a vacuum tube, a characteristic that made them faster, smaller, and more reliable. The first models of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. The second generation of computers marks a milestone in computer history thanks to the technological advance that meant the creation of transistors to process information to replace vacuum tubes. The term transistor derives from the combination of the English words transfer resistor, and is an electronic, semiconductor device with multiple functions such as amplify, oscillate, switch or rectify. Examples of the second generation comp… Some of the computers that were already built with transistors in this period were: IBM 1401; Honeywell 800 and 5000 series; UNIVAC M460; The IBM 7090 and 7094; NCR 315; The RCA 501 and 601 Fourth generation (1975 AD- till the date) 5. INDEX 3. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples … The second generation of computers covered the period from 1959 to 1964. Fig: computers of the second generation. Second-generation programming language In its normal state, the semi-conductor was not conductive, but when a certain voltage was applied to it, it became conductive and the electric current flowed through it. There are some computers of the second generation, which are given below: IBM 7094; IBM 1620; CDC 1604; CDC 3600; UNIVAC1108; Honeywell 400; Computer Architecture of IBM 7094. Featured computers from the second generation. Generations of Computer: 1. In addition, DEC launched the PDP-1, its first machine primarily aimed at laboratory technicians and research staff. ... Every home has several examples of embedded computers. Wider commercial use; Better portability as compared to the first generation computers. The invention of the transistor made possible a new generation of computers with the following characteristics: The creation of transistors and their use in computer manufacturing, triggered a series of events in the history of computing, not only because it represented a significant technological advance, but also initiated a new stage in equipment commercialization. Second-generation programming language (2GL) is a generational way to categorize assembly languages.. Computers could store more data in less space, 200 transistors could be accommodated in the same amount of space as a vacuum tube. Large companies began to use the computer for storage, registration, inventory management, payroll and accounting. These computers were more reliable and in place of vacuum tubes, used transistors. second generation computers second generation computers where manufactured using transistors, rather than vacuum tube. TYPES AND GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS 2. The examples of second generation computers are IBM 7094 series, IBM 1400 series and CDC 164 etc. C++. William Bradford Shockley (13/02/1910 – 12 /08/1989), the physicist Walter Houser Brattain (Amoy, China, 10/02/1902 – 13/10/1987), and the electrical and physical engineer John Bardeen (Madison, United States 23/05/1908 – Boston, 30/01/1991), were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Basic Computer Language. In the early 1960s, the IBM 1401 and Honeywell 400 were examples. IBM had two product lines, a “commercial” product line and a “scientific” line, which were unified into one. Now in this article, we are going to list out . Example of Second Generation of Computer: 1. Honeywell 400 2. Much less expensive. 2. Transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes and allowed computers to be smaller in size, faster in speed, and cheaper to build. The transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes and allowed computers to be smaller in size, faster in speed and cheaper to build. The replacement of vacuum tubes by transistors saw the advent of the second generation of computing. Transistors Replaced Vaccum Tube. However, the cost remained high. Advantages. Also known as a 2nd generation language. The creation of the transistor made possible a new generation of computers, faster and much smaller and, moreover, with less need for ventilation. 4. was developed, the first computer game. Each of them was soldered on top of a circuit board that served to connect to other individual components. Second-generation-computer definitions A computer made of discrete transistors and other electronic components. For data storage magnetic tapes and magnetic tapes and magnetic disks were used. 7. Examples of this generation computer are STAR 1000, CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer), PDP 11, DEC 10, and CRAY-1. Fig: Architecture of computer. The second generation is the Transistor Generation. The object-oriented programming was used in the fourth generation of computer.Various types of language exist in object-oriented programming such as Java, Visual Basic, etc. C#. This equipment was characterized for using 50 metal disks of 61 cm, with 100 tracks per side. The term was coined to provide a distinction from higher level machine independent third-generation programming languages (3GL) such as COBOL and earlier first-generation programming languages (machine code). 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