(Morgan xvi). Here we are interested mostly in guns, but of course AA guns require freedom of elevation. I will unabashedly use the term "battleship" anachronistically to refer to the more powerful fleet units of any time period. This gun was to be used to help sweep the sky of the Western Frontof those pesky thousands of American, British, and French biplanes in the last year of World War 1. Thus, there was also a trend toward replacing bronze with cast iron. For example, in 1742, a British navy 32-9.5 weighed 6048 pounds in bronze and 6384 in cast iron, and a 42-10 was 7392 pounds in bronze and a walloping 8400 in iron. He notes that ideally the finish cut would be with a reamer. 2 For the War of 1812, Constitution had slightly different gun configurations, at least between her first battle, with HMS Guerriere on August 19, 1812, and her last battle, with HMS Cyane and HMS Levant on February 20, 1815. The complete mold was lowered into a pit, muzzle up. That gave them a rate of fire of just one shot every three minutes. Increasing caliber of cannon generally increases damage and range at the cost of loading time. (Creuze 15). When cooling, the tin has a tendency to separate from the copper, causing white blotches called "tin spots" which are eaten away by the powder gas. The ball is then stuffed down. In essence, there were two clay molds, a hollow one for the exterior and a solid one (core) for the interior. On the screw, the arcs at the lowest step level are blank, and the other arcs are threaded. The 1855 Griffen "Ordnance Rifle," a 10-pounder cannon with a 3 inch rifled bore, was built up by welding wrought iron bands together around a mandrel, boring, and rifling. A new powder that could achieve a higher muzzle velocity had been developed. However, a more conventional solution to unacceptable friction has been to put the projectile into a plastic-sabot (see part 4) so that the friction is plastic-metal rather than metal-metal. While short-barreled carronades were easy to load, they had other problems; the flash could set fire to the rigging, and the vent fire could do the same to the hammocks. By the early-seventeenth century, the main guns of a warship were all muzzle loaders, but her swivel guns were still breechloaders. The cannon in use as of the RoF have smoothbore barrels, which means just what it says. First, avoid the "Hornblower Syndrome." A carronade only needed 4 men. This article continues in Part 2, "Ready, Aim, Fire!". A ship could carry mortars that could be landed and used to strike a position that was out of reach (because of shoals or batteries) of the ship's guns. (Ireland1997, 42). In 1805, the sloops could further be divided into ship-rigged (three masts), with or without a quarterdeck, and brig-rigged (two masts). Krupp cast his first steel cannon in 1847 (Krause 59). Table 1-3 shows that even in Elizabethan times, there was a trend toward heavier armament: Table 1-3: Ship Armament Distribution in Elizabethan Navy, *stone throwers (Port-pieces and fowlers were small stone throwers, virtually obsolete by 1635—Lavery 103). There were breechloaders with removable chambers, and by having several prepped chambers handy, one could get off several shots quickly—perhaps one a minute, at least until the preps were used up. (, There were essentially four kinds of bronze guns: pedreros, cannons, culverins and mortars. We offer this gun in naval gun bronze with a steel sleeve or in… One gunboat Both were subject to expansion when heated, which I would think would especially be a problem for the gun if it had been fired repeatedly. (Ireland 47-9). (Guilmartin, 322-3). The metal is soft bronze, in which he drills out the bore on a lathe. Of 110 large caliber Union cannon that cracked or burst in action during the war, 83 were Parrotts . That wouldn't be as expensive as making the whole thing out of lead, but fouling would still be a problem. Also, during the American Civil War, rifled artillery seemed more prone to burst than muzzle-loading Dahlgrens, and rifled projectiles couldn't gain range by ricochet. HMS Inflexible (1876) had two screws driven by compound steam engines, and two masts that could carry 18,500 sf sail (Wikipedia). Late in the history of muzzle loading artillery, the gas escape problem was reduced by use of a gas check, a thin disk that filled the cross-section of the bore. For eighteenth-century field artillery (3 –12 pounders), a good rate of fire for an eight-man crew was considered to be two aimed shots per minute (Peterson 119), and this could be doubled by eliminating steps (such as sponging the bore) . One solution (Armstrong, 1854) was to provide the projectiles with studs to engage the grooves of the rifling. Once so situated, any action versus an opposing long gun armed ship of similar class would be a more or less foregone conclusion (other things being equal). (Horton 302). This accident provided the impetus for change, but there were other considerations at work. (Wikipedia/Rodman_Gun). So-called "bronze steel," an ordinary bronze cast under pressure while chilling the interior, and subsequently forged cold, was also considered, but eclipsed by steel. MC0620 US Carronade Cannon Barrel only ... Dixie Gun Works 1412 West Reelfoot Avenue Union City, TN 38261. Coordinated, albeit modest advances, may accomplish more than a narrowly focused breakthrough. Please note that the shot weights were nominal; in the early-nineteenth century, a "24 pounder" had a true caliber ranging from 5.8230 inches (English) to 6.1107 inches (Swedish). In 1902, with the Mark VII 6-inch quick-fire, nine British warships exhibited prize firing rates that ranged from 4.17-7.38 rounds/minute. "Single" meant that the shot weighed the same as the roundshot, while some other canister and grapes… There will no doubt be heated arguments with regard to the fine points of rifling: the number of grooves, the degree of twist, and the shape of the groove. 75 times the shot weight). The ten-inch guns of the new time line's. The most powerful gun actually mounted on a ship in the ACW was a 15-inch Dahlgren, weighing 42,000 pounds. (Dash 72). In that year, the, We may recognize three basic gun arrangements: predominantly frontal; predominantly broadside; and turreted. (Alder 42). On the other hand, a long 32-pdr or 9-inch shell gun might be fired once every forty seconds. The privateer is essentially a privately-owned frigate or smaller vessel intended for commerce raiding. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries one could also find heavy frontal armament in certain specialized warships, bomb ketches and rocket ships. In other words, the barrels weren't long enough. It's worth noting that in the mid-nineteenth-century American navy, a sloop-of-war could be a quite powerful warship. 8 times caliber ) and a reduced diameter (1/2 to 1/3 caliber) powder chamber. The 32-pdr was a popular ACW carriage gun, weighing 27, 57 cwt, and firing either 32.5 pound shot or a 26 pound shell with 0.9 pounds powder. (Owen 337). Quickview. Before a gun was accepted (and paid for) by the military, it was tested. There was also the British Armstrong gun. The term "battleship" dates back only to 1794; it was an abbreviation of "line-of-battle ship." (Konstam 40). Solid Casting. This turnabout didn't last long. For a ship with broadside armament, the length determines how many guns it can carry per deck. In Elizabethan breechloaders, the removable chamber was wedged into the breech. This led to a variety of curious expedients. (Kaufmann 5). (Toll 7). For eighteenth-century field artillery (3. With small arms, the bullet could be made of lead, which is malleable. That, of course, is heavily dependent on twentieth-century materials. (See 1922 EB/ "Ammunition"). Once the metal had cooled and solidified, the mold was broken so the casting could be removed. (1634: TBW, Chap. (Guilmartin). In 1612, British warships were divided according to tonnage into ship royal (800 –1200 tons), middling ships (600 –800), small ships (250 –600), and pinnaces (80 –250). Sails, masts, spars and stays would of course restrict the firing arcs; nonetheless, many early turreted warships were hybrids (sail/steam) because of doubts as to the reliability of the engine. (Tennent 106). The carronade was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity for merchant ships, which found a niche role on warships. (Glete 55). (Canfield). Once inserted, such a screw would be given a quarter-turn, and then the threads would be fully engaged. Muzzle loaders usually were brought inboard for loading. The rate of fire at sea was lower. Over the course of the sixteenth century, a second and then a third gundeck (~1591) was introduced. The guns were also inaccurate." Nonetheless, the specialized warship of the seventeenth century not only carried more guns, but often heavier ones. First, avoid the "Hornblower Syndrome." But if the barrels were lengthened, then recoil wasn't sufficient to bring the muzzle inside the turret for loading. The carronade was largely developed by private enterprise toward the end of the 1770s, when naval tactics were changing from rigid "line of battle" actions to more close quarters combat. A modern crew of four handling a replica sixteenth-century wrought iron breechloader required 5. The ten-inchers fire studded shells. The cannon was cast solid, breech down, and then the bore was drilled out horizontally. Before I go into details, I want to issue a few warnings. A number of expedients were tested in the nineteenth century. A modern crew of four handling a replica sixteenth-century wrought iron breechloader required 5 –10 minutes per shot (Konstam 40). There were also two-decker broadside ironclads, such as the French Magenta (1862), 282 feet long. Historically, sand molds were introduced in Britain about 1750. (Glete 328ff). Positioning the gun on a higher deck has the advantage that the gunports are less likely to be forced to close as a result of rough sea conditions (Laing 76). This scheme was abandoned after 1622. In general, this didn't work out perfectly, the core would shift so the bore wouldn't be quite straight. The metal would thus cool inside out, pre-stressing it in a desirable way. According to EB11/Ordnance, the first successful breech mechanism was that invented by Armstrong (1854). The superstructures became less useful and were mostly used as siege weapons rare, they use... Something else and that the interior ( core ) mold had to provide the projectiles studs! 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