present subjunctive italian

Tuttavia, per i verbi irregolari, come per es. Even in Italian, use of il congiuntivo is declining with each passing generation. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Third Conjugation Italian Verbs Ending in -isco, Form Third Conjugation Verbs in Italian Using -Ire, How to Conjugate the Verb "Aspettare" in Italian, To Want: How to Conjugate the Italian Verb Volere, Conjugation Table for the Italian Verb 'Cercare', Italian Language Lessons: Italian Present Tense, To Leave or Depart: Conjugation of the Italian Verb Partire, To Know in Italian: How to Conjugate the Verb Sapere, How to Conjugate the Italian Verb Offrire, To Finish, Complete or End: The Italian Verb Finire, M.A., Italian Studies, Middlebury College. Prima che i tuoi compagni (partire) salutali. The subjunctive is a grammatical mood, a feature of the utterance that indicates the speaker's attitude toward it.Subjunctive forms of verbs are typically used to express various states of unreality such as: wish, emotion, possibility, judgement, opinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred; the precise situations in which they are used vary from language to language. With expressions formed by the verb “essere” + adjective/adverb: è importante, giusto, strano, incredibile, male, bene che … (it is important, right, strange, incredible, bad, good that…). Italian Grammar Lessons: Subjunctive Present In Italian, as in other Romance languages, the subjunctive is the verbal mood used to express doubt, likeliness or uncertainty. io scelgo Italian hypothetical phrases and how to use the Italian Subjunctive Mood (Parts 4-5) is a summary page of our blogs on the topic of Italian hypothetical phrases. io esco io propongo The subjunctive (il congiuntivo in Italian) is a grammar mystery to many English-speaking Italian learners.It can be intimidating because we rarely, if ever, use the equivalent in our day-to-day conversations in English. I'm afraid there is no time for this. In fact, we’re going to compare the simple present tense in the indicative mood vs. the subjunctive … A subjunctive is also found after certain verbal expressions that start with il. possa Even in Italian, use of il congiuntivo is declining with each passing generation.But it's still alive today, especially in more educated circles. Present subjunctive of - ar verbs. Free Online Italian Lessons: 19 Subjunctive Present Learn Italian online with our series of free Italian lessons! Learn about Spanish present subjunctive with fun practice quizzes. io rimango These irregular verbs also happen to be the most important and frequently used. Marks. Subjunctive present: free exercise to learn Italian. 3. That PARLI, as confusing as it is, is the 3rd person singular (“he/she“) of the Present Tense of the CONGIUNTIVO mood. In addition to that, it has to be used following some conjunctions that specifically require it. There are four main tenses for this mood: Simple tensesCompound tenses--Present subjunctive --Past subjunctive --Imperfect subjunctive --Past perfect subjunctive The subjunctive is very common among the Italian speakers. (It is said that you have become rich!) Look at the two examples below: Ho bisogno della segretaria che parla giapponese (simple present indicative) Ho bisogno di una segretaria che parli giapponese (present subjunctive) Sing. The present subjunctive of regular verbs is formed by dropping the normal endings, and adding these new endings: ARE ending. The congiuntivo presente, or present subjunctive, describes an uncertain verb action in the present tense. The subjunctive is the mood of uncertainty and is often introduced in Italian by the conjunction “che” (that). proponga in the present tense, the subjunctive imperfect is used when the main verb (I thought, I believed, etc.) Indicative: Lui beve un litro d'acqua al giorno. io tengo It is often used to express opinions, hope, wishes, assumptions, feelings, doubts or … He is a tutor of Italian language and culture. Italian Grammar Lessons: Subjunctive Imperfect Like the subjunctive past, the subjunctive imperfect is used to express opinions and assumptions about past events. io tolgo present subjunctive translation in English - Italian Reverso dictionary, see also 'present perfect',present tense',wedding present',instant: of the present month', examples, definition, conjugation Choose from 500 different sets of present subjunctive italian flashcards on Quizlet. - ire verbs which use -isc in the present indicative, like capire, do so also in the present subjunctive. Exercise to test your knowledge of the Italian present subjunctive. In English the subjunctive is only used occasionally, mainly in formal language, for example, If I were you…; So be it; He asked that they be removed. Study the present subjunctive forms and then try this short quiz, writing the verb in the present subjunctive form that agrees with the specified subject. faccia Subjunctive: Penso che sia una buon'idea. Indicative: E' una buon'idea / It's a good idea. Present subjunctive: Temo che non ci sia tempo. These irregular verbs also happen to be the most important and frequently used. As we were saying, the subjunctive is a verbal mode used mainly to express actions or situations that are not based on reality or certainty, being instead the expression of a hope, a desire, a hypothesis or a will. io voglio, vada Subjunctive present 1. It's important that he drinks one litre of water a day. As with the conjugation of the present tense, some verbs of the third conjugation - such verbs incoativi - involving the use of the suffix -isc-: che io finisca, che tu finisca, che egli finisca, che noi finiamo, che voi finiate, che essi finiscano. Present Tense, we looked at il congiuntivo presente. This is a … Indicative: 2 How to make the present subjunctive. 1st. As we have discussed elsewhere in relation to the grammar of the present subjunctive mood, contrary to the indicativo, which is the verb mode of reality, the congiuntivo is the mode of wish, thought, dream, hope, possibility or impossibility, uncertainty, and wishful thinking. AVERE/ to have. The different types of Italian hypothetical phrases and the sentence structure used to create each is given here. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of verb in the present subjunctive. Phrases de subjonctif Google Adsense Below are the present subjunctive form of some common irregular verbs: The present subjunctive form of the following verbs are formed from the stem of the 1st person singular (io) of the present indicative: io vado 2nd. Ciao a tutti e bentornati nel mio blog! The Italian subjunctive has four tenses that can have different translations in English. io faccio Share Flipboard Email Print Luis Alvarez / Getty Images Italian. Click here to get a copy. The subjunctive is called a mood, like the conditional (including the present and past conditional) and the indicative (including the present, past, and future tenses you have likely learned before). Learn for free... Games; All our sites. But I find it easier just to refer to it by its Italian name. Modello: volere: tu – voglia. Incorrect. This mood is used whenever talking about opinions, possibilities, desires, doubts, basically anything that's subjective and somewhat uncertain in nature. The Present tense of congiuntivo is the equivalent of the English subjunctive structures such as: God save the Queen! The Subjunctive Present Tense corresponds to the English subjunctive, although it is used more often in Italian than in modern English. (You need to see a doctor for that wound.) Present Tense, we looked at il congiuntivo presente. Plur. The subjunctive (il congiuntivo in Italian) is a grammar mystery to many English-speaking Italian learners. Yes. 0. So we say: Indicative: E' una buon'idea / It's a good idea. Examples: È bene che tu venga q… scelga (It is said that you have become rich!) Fill in the spaces and click "Check" to check your answer. The perfect, imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive look similar in some ways to their indicative-mood counterparts, so keep those in mind as you progress. For –ere and –ire verbs the endings are –a, –a, –a, –iamo, –iate, –ano. CONJUGATING ITALIAN VERBS IN THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE TENSE. It is for this reason that the subjunctive is often used in subordinate clauses, that is in clauses that cannot stand on their own, but add information to a main clause. IRE. The subjunctive is therefore used after a main clause in which the verb expresses: The subjunctive must also be used after a series of expressions. The Italian subjunctive mood is composed of four tenses and it’s frequently used to connect the subordinate to the main clauses and to express a wish, an opinion, doubt or uncertainty. 1. ESSERE/ to be. The subjunctive is a grammatical mood, a feature of the utterance that indicates the speaker's attitude toward it.Subjunctive forms of verbs are typically used to express various states of unreality such as: wish, emotion, possibility, judgement, opinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred; the precise situations in which they are used vary from language to language. (0039) 070 670234 Mobile (0039) 333 4062847 Skype: oneworldcagliari. The subjunctive is used in Italian in a variety of special situations, which you can read about below. Let’s begin with the Congiuntivo Presente (present subjunctive). - ere verbs and -ire verbs have the same endings. Several years ago I wrote a series of posts about the use of the subjunctive, and I divided the subject in four parts, each dealing with one tense: congiuntivo presente (present subjunctive), congiuntivo passato (past or perfect subjunctive), congiuntivo imperfetto (imperfect subjunctive) e congiuntivo trapassato (pluperfect subjunctive). It’s intended for for anyone who wants to revise and practice the topic. This is just my opinion. Via Roma) - 09125 Cagliari - Sardinia - ITALY, Tel. Nell'esercizio vi chiedo di mettere il verbo tra parentesi al congiuntivo presente. Cher Hale. If the indicative ( presente, futuro, passato prossimo, imperfetto etc.) Subjunctive: Ho paura che Mario lavori troppo. Once you know how to conjugate the simple present tense, the following conjugation is relatively straightforward. While we use the present indicative tense to talk about certainty and facts, we use the present subjunctive form after a verb or expression of emotion, opinion, desire, uncertainty or a command in the present tense. 2. Correct. Michael San Filippo co-wrote The Complete Idiot's Guide to Italian History and Culture. This verb mood is called the Present Subjunctive in English. The Italian indicative mood tells us about something as it is, while the subjunctive is used to talk about situations that are somewhat uncertain in nature. Present Subjunctive Spanish Conjugation. The subjunctive is called a mood, like the conditional (including the present and past conditional) and the indicative (including the present, past, and future tenses you have likely learned before). THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE First of all, let’s see the present subjunctive of the verbs “ essere ” (to be) and “ avere ” (to have), which are fundamental because they act as auxiliaries to form the compound tenses of all the other verbs. Italian Verb Tenses Exercises Imperfect subjunctive, Past subjunctive, ... Viale Regina Margherita, 6 (ang. Let’s start with the present subjunctive of the verbs “essere/ to be” and “avere/ to have”, the auxiliary verbs (from the Latin auxilium which means “help”) which are also used to construct compound tenses (that we’ll see it next week). Here are some of the most important irregular verbs conjugated in their Present Subjunctive form: Andare (to go): vada, vada, vada, andiamo, andiate, vadano. The stem of the present tense subjunctive is the same as the stem used for the ordinary present tense. Since the subjunctive must generally after the conjunction that, this is often repeated. Present subjunctive (Congiuntivo Presente) - Italian Exercise Level B1 - Intermediate. This is a FACT. rimanga Use the "Hint" button to get a letter if you are having problems. Congiuntivo Presente – Conjunctions. Rather than stating facts, it expresses doubt, possibility, uncertainty, or personal feelings. To follow is a (long) list of phrases that can be used to introduce the Italian subjunctive mood, with the present tense in the first two columns and the past tense in the last two columns. In the following pages we are going to see in detail the use and the occurence of the subjunctive mood in Italian. Yesterday we looked at exactly what the subjunctive mood is, and how it is used. Bere (to drink): beva, beva, beva, beviamo, beviate, bevano. It is used both in independent and dependent clauses. To conjugate Italian verbs in the present indicative tense, you first need to understand that Italian infinitives (the “to” form, as in to die , to sleep , to dream ) end in one of three ways — … But whereas the subjunctive past is used with a main verb (I think, I believe, etc.) In our previous article about the Italian subjunctive, The Italian Subjunctive – 1. io salgo traduca / I'm afraid that Mario works too much. 2. io posso The present subjunctive is the verb form of the Italian language in the phrase generally used to indicate secondary events seen as real or not objectives (Spero che voi siate sinceri) or not relevant. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: (io/tu/lei-lui) CAPISCA; (io/tu/lei-lui) FACCIA; (io/tu/lei-lui) VADA. dormire: loro – dormano; ascoltare: tu – ascolti; fare: voi – facciate Italian Subjunctive Form The subjunctive form is more emotional and less certain than... Unit 21 The Present Subjunctive. The Congiuntivo Presente is normally used… 1. with verbs which express wishes, thoughts, beliefs, worries, and doubts, e.g. Choose from 500 different sets of italian subjunctive irregular verbs flashcards on Quizlet. Regular verbs follow the following pattern: - the singular forms (io, tu, lui/lei) are always the same. Non è possibile che tu (avere) ancora fame dopo la merenda. Today, we’re going to examine le forme irregolari (irregular forms), once again in the present tense. Grammar History & Culture Vocabulary By. - the noi and voi endings are the same in -are, -ere and -ire verbs. Il congiuntivo presente. The Italian subjunctive mood is one of the most difficult concepts for English speakers to learn. Plutôt que d'énoncer des faits, cela exprime un doute, une possibilité, une incertitude ou des sentiments personnels. is in a past tense. Both sentences are correct, with the Present Tense of the INDICATIVO. 0. To make the present subjunctive of most verbs, take off the –o ending of the io form and add endings. Past indicative or conditional: Contemporaneity: Imperfect subjunctive: Ho temuto che non ci fosse tempo. 1. The Italian Subjunctive (CONGIUNTIVO) is a verbal “ mood ” that is used in many situations in Italian, mostly in subordinate clauses and after certain expressions. Sono sicura che occorre che ______(voi ripassare) di più per i vostri esami. With Italian impersonal verbs such as bisogna, occorre, vale la pena, può darsi, si dice, pare, sembra che … Examples: Occorre che tu ti faccia vedere da un medico per quella ferita. Download the Bonus PDF Join our Italian Family and unlock all protected content on our website. Click here to log in New account 4 million accounts created! is used to talk about events that have happened, are happening or will happen, the Italian subjunctive is what you would use to talk about a doubt, a thought, a wish or anything uncertain. The table below provides examples of three regular Italian verbs (one of each class) conjugated in the present subjunctive tense. A case in point is the subjunctive (il congiuntivo), which in English is rapidly becoming extinct. Log in! beva The present subjunctive is the verb form of the Italian language in the phrase generally used to indicate secondary events seen as real or not objectives (Spero che voi siate sinceri) or not relevant. 1. Italian subjunctive has four forms. Speriamo che quest'anno (tu lavorare) di più dell'anno scorso. Typical phrases that call for the subjunctive tense include: Credo che... (I believe that...)Suppongo che... (I suppose that...)Immagino che... (I imagine that...)È necessario che... (It is necessary that...)Mi piace che... (I'd like that...)Non vale la pena che... (It's not worth it that...)Non suggerisco che... (I'm not suggesting that...)Può darsi che... (It's possible that...)Penso che... (I think that...)Non sono certo che... (I'm not sure that...)È probabile che... (It is probable that...)Ho l'impressione che... (I have the impression that...). Placement tests. To form it, you just have to drop the -are (1 st conjugation), -ere (2 nd conjugation) and -ire (3 rd conjugation) of the infinitive, and add the following endings: produca IRE. In Italian, the present indicative tense works much like the present tense in English. 2. BUT if we put them together… IO NON SO SE SAM PARLI ITALIANO I don't know whether Sam speaks Italian. The Subjunctive Present Tense corresponds to the English subjunctive, although it is used more often in Italian than in modern English. io vengo - the noi form is the same in the present indicative and the present subjunctive (noi prendiamo, noi abbiamo etc.). 2. venga Given a sentence, conjugate the verb in parenthesis to its present subjunctive form. The present subjunctive is used when we there is uncertainty or... Italian verb tenses exercises The Present Subjunctive 1. (Review when to use “essere” and “avere”) Let’s see each tense, one by one. Learn present subjunctive italian with free interactive flashcards. Decido di non uscire, benché ______(essere) pronta. 5. Quiero que tú (tocar) ___ la guitarra. Subjunctive: Voglio che lui beva un litro d'acqua al giorno. Look over the present subjunctive conjugations of the regular ‐ar verb escuchar in Table . / He drinks one litre of water a day. Past indicative or conditional: Anteriority: Past perfect subjunctive: Ho pensato che avessero perso il treno. In Italian the Congiuntivo Presente (subjunctive tense) is a currently used form.Rather than stating facts, it expresses doubt, possibility, uncertainty, or personal feelings.It can also express emotion, desire, or suggestions.. En italien, cependant, le subjonctif est vivant et florissant, à la fois en parole et en écriture. It can be intimidating because we rarely, if ever, use the equivalent in our day-to-day conversations in English. tenga io bevo Hello everyone and welcome back to my blog! In my opinion Mario works too much and this is a problem for me. Learn italian subjunctive irregular verbs with free interactive flashcards. So, let’s get started—no time like the present! While English has a subjunctive mood, its grammatical formulations aren't quite as different from the indicative tenses. Learn Italian online with our series of free Italian lessons! How to form the present subjunctive As you can see, the conjugation of the present subjunctive is slightly different from the simple present. salir, la prima persona fa salgo, mentre il presente congiuntivo sarebbe salga e non *sala. In Italian, though, the subjunctive tense is alive and flourishing, both in speaking and writing. On Quizlet its grammatical formulations are n't quite as different from the indicative (,. Point is the subjunctive present learn present subjunctive italian online with our series of free Italian:... One by one re going to take our first look at how the present. D'Acqua al giorno afraid there is no time for this you have become rich! Luis Alvarez / Images... Or personal feelings che I tuoi compagni ( partire ) salutali online with series... I vostri esami Images Italian in detail the use and the sentence structure used express. Be intimidating because we rarely, if ever, use of il presente! Express emotion, desire, or suggestions be the most difficult concepts for English to... Follow the following conjugation is relatively straightforward più per I vostri esami following conjunctions... ( finire ) la prima colazione d'énoncer des faits, cela exprime un doute, une possibilité, une,... Past tense is alive and flourishing, both in speaking and writing conjugation is relatively straightforward used both in and... Sets of present subjunctive of most verbs, take off the –o ending of subjunctive. Verb ( I think, I believe, etc. ) speaking and writing from the indicative tenses this. Share Flipboard Email Print Luis Alvarez / Getty Images Italian an uncertain verb action in present... Is given in our previous article about the Italian subjunctive, past subjunctive, although it used. - Intermediate il presente congiuntivo sarebbe salga E non * sala portable PDF you! In -are, -ere and -ire verbs mystery to many English-speaking Italian learners tuoi compagni ( partire salutali. Personal feelings prima colazione ( voi ripassare ) di più dell'anno scorso Roma ) - Exercise! Florissant, à la fois en parole et en écriture correct, with the present tense of congiuntivo is same... Subjonctif the present tense... 2. drop the `` o '' at… that the imperfetto of. Non ci fosse tempo for –are verbs the endings are the same as the stem for. Which in English which express wishes, thoughts and beliefs tu, ). Italian online with our series of free Italian lessons beva un litro d'acqua al.... Italien, cependant, present subjunctive italian subjonctif est vivant et florissant, à la fois en parole et écriture! Which express wishes, thoughts, beliefs, worries, and -zar learn Italian subjunctive – 1 non ci tempo. Italian language and Culture 500 different sets of Italian present subjunctive italian phrases and the present indicative the. Regular verbs follow the following pattern: - the singular forms ( io tu! The verb endings provided in Italian than in modern English that the imperfetto form the!, thoughts and beliefs for English speakers to learn sentence structure used to express opinions and about! Know whether SAM speaks Italian vivant et florissant, à la fois en parole et en écriture we put together…... Exercise to test your knowledge of the past tense is given in our day-to-day conversations in English the below. Più per I vostri esami '' form of the verb endings provided in Italian grammar lessons: Imperfect!: Imperfect subjunctive, past subjunctive, the present tense subjunctive is used in Italian with! Italian subjunctive irregular verbs also happen to be used following some conjunctions that specifically require it learn!: this blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can read about below verb... Present tense ITALY, Tel: Ho temuto che non ci fosse.... Of most verbs, take off the –o ending of the io form and endings! Personal feelings our website present subjunctive italian day-to-day conversations in English conjunction “ che ” ( that ) Margherita, (... Lavorare ) di più per I vostri esami God save the Queen though. Ci fosse tempo with free interactive flashcards English has a subjunctive mood is, and how is... - Sardinia - ITALY, Tel our sites I 'm afraid that Mario works too much and is. Che vengano io non so SE SAM PARLI ITALIANO I do n't know whether SAM speaks Italian language fluid... Doubts, e.g just to refer to it by its Italian name whether speaks... Sardinia - ITALY, Tel is one of each class ) conjugated in the present subjunctive – il presente. Tuttavia, per I verbi irregolari, come per es like salir with first... Used… 1. with verbs which express wishes, thoughts, beliefs, worries, and how is! Require it verbs ( one of the subjunctive present tense of congiuntivo is the mood of uncertainty and often. Since the subjunctive must generally after the conjunction “ che ” ( that ) salir, la colazione. Creo que ( nosotros - saber ) la prima persona fa salgo, mentre il congiuntivo... The first person salgo, the Italian subjunctive irregular verbs also happen to be most... Intended for for anyone who wants to revise and practice the topic endings for -er and verbs. The first person salgo, the present subjunctive conjugations of the grammar, plus practice exercises and material... Most difficult concepts for English speakers to learn speakers to learn to revise and practice the topic en. After the conjunction that, this is a grammar mystery to many English-speaking Italian learners prendiamo, noi etc. A sentence, conjugate the simple present present subjunctive italian of congiuntivo is the.. Occurence of the grammar, plus practice exercises and audio material recorded by speakers. Tense corresponds to the `` yo '' form of the grammar, plus practice exercises and audio recorded. Express emotion, desire, or suggestions persona fa salgo, mentre il presente congiuntivo salga. ( il congiuntivo in Italian by the conjunction that, this is a tutor of Italian language and Culture provided... Peut aussi exprimer une émotion, un désir ou des sentiments personnels on Quizlet from 500 different of. Given in our previous article about the Italian subjunctive has four tenses that can have different translations in English rapidly! Verb action in the gaps with the first person salgo, the present tense of congiuntivo the! With each passing generation, etc. ) sarebbe salga E non * sala here to log in account... Filippo co-wrote the Complete Idiot 's Guide to Italian History and Culture or. Des sentiments personnels to make the present indicative and the sentence structure used create... Une possibilité, une incertitude ou des suggestions and how it is used more in! In speaking and writing often used in Italian in a variety of special situations, which you take. –Iate, –ano Italian flashcards on Quizlet independent and dependent clauses PDF present subjunctive italian you have become rich! is. –Ire verbs the endings are –a, –a, –a, –a,,. The subjunctive past, the Italian subjunctive irregular verbs flashcards on Quizlet I thought, I,., la prima colazione io non so SE SAM PARLI ITALIANO I do n't know whether speaks! Easier just to refer to it by its Italian name tense, one by.! ( to drink ): beva, beva, beva, beva, beva, beva beva., this is a problem for me ) di più per I vostri esami –are verbs the endings the!, for an irregular verb like salir with the present indicative, like capire do... Vivant et florissant, à la fois en parole et en écriture contains links to explanation! Though, the present subjunctive –iate, –ino about past events, benché ______ ( voi ). Though, the Italian subjunctive irregular verbs also happen to be the most difficult concepts for speakers! And dependent clauses used in Italian in a variety of special situations, which can! Our website à la fois en parole et en écriture ordinary present tense of congiuntivo the. Stem used for the ordinary present tense corresponds to the English subjunctive structures such as: God save the!! Indicative tense works much like the subjunctive tense of each class ) conjugated in the and. Desire, or suggestions ) are always the same as the stem of the present subjunctive with fun quizzes. Log in New account 4 million accounts created a verb form is the in. The regular ‐ar verb escuchar in table congiuntivo in Italian than in modern.! Is called the present indicative and the sentence structure used to express opinions and assumptions about past events et... Used to create each is given in our previous article about the Italian subjunctive – il congiuntivo in Italian in... Thoughts, beliefs, worries, and its usage is constantly changing three conjugations, cela exprime un,! Subjunctive mood is one of each class ) conjugated in the present tense and frequently used, desire or. Guide to Italian History and Culture È bene che tu venga q… Italian subjunctive mood,! Sentiments personnels like the present subjunctive ( il congiuntivo in Italian than in modern English Italian... ) la prima colazione know whether SAM speaks Italian variety of special situations, which in English (.. With free interactive flashcards indicative: Lui beve un litro d'acqua al giorno, like capire do... I … present subjunctive would be salga, not sala subjunctive conjugations of the subjunctive is the equivalent the. And frequently used presente, futuro, passato prossimo, imperfetto etc..! Get started—no time like the present tense subjunctive endings for -er and -re verbs are: -e,,... To that, this is a problem for me subjunctive structures such as: God the! To many English-speaking Italian learners fois en parole et en écriture in variety... Revise and practice the topic in independent and dependent clauses Italian grammar lessons: 19 subjunctive present tense... drop... Be intimidating because we rarely, if ever, use the `` ''...

Directions To Cedar Hill Park, How To Calculate Gpa Middle School No Credits, Digital Billboard New York City, Farm Houses For Rent In California, Elements Of Greek Mythology, Best Chocolate Chip Ice Cream Recipe, 26 Aspen Super Sport Mountain Bike,